• Ivan Stojšić University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, Centre for Educational Technology, Didactics’ Training and Career Guidance of Biology Teachers, Belgrade, Republic of Serbia




digital game development, educational escape rooms, generative artificial intelligence, game-based learning, technology-enhanced learning


Escape rooms used for teaching purposes are usually called educational escape rooms. Educational escape rooms are cooperative games designed for teaching particular educational material based on a series of narrative-driven puzzles that group(s) of pupils/students must solve within a limited time to achieve the goal of the game and leave a room or environment (or alternatively break into the locked box or unravel a mystery). The shift to online teaching caused by the COVID-19 pandemic increased the use of educational escape rooms in a digital format. Digital educational escape rooms are escape game-like interactive activities (based on educational content) that are made with digital technologies. Most of the research studies and literature reviews suggest that digital educational escape rooms could have some positive impacts on students’ cognitive, behavioral, and affective learning outcomes. However, a significant amount of digital escape games created by teachers lack engaging story, challenging narrative-based puzzles (that are related to specific learning objectives), and cohesive graphics. Therefore, the practical usability and effectiveness of such games in real and virtual learning environments are questionable. In the field of educational game development, generative artificial intelligence can play a significant role in simplifying the process, improving quality, and saving time. This paper discusses how teachers could utilize generative artificial intelligence tools to ease and improve the creation process of digital educational escape rooms. In other words, this paper provides examples of how elements of digital escape games (such as narrative, game environment images, and puzzles) can be created with generative artificial intelligence tools (e.g., ChatGPT, Bing Image Creator, Stable Diffusion, AutoDraw, etc.).


Download data is not yet available.


Ambrožová, P., & Kaliba, M. (2021). Online escape games as an educational tool. In L. Gomez Chova, A. Lopez, & I. Candel

Torres (Eds.), ICERI2021 Proceedings (pp. 5998-6003). IATED Digital Library. https://doi.org/10.21125/iceri.2021.1353 DOI: https://doi.org/10.21125/iceri.2021.1353

Botturi, L., & Babazadeh, M. (2020). Designing educational escape rooms: Validating the Star Model. International Journal of

Serious Games, 7(3), 41-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.17083/ijsg.v7i3.367 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17083/ijsg.v7i3.367

Clare, A. (2015). Escape the game: How to make puzzles and escape rooms. Wero Creative Press.

Clarke, S., Peel, D. J., Arnab, S., Morini, L., Keegan, H., & Wood, O. (2017). EscapED: A framework for creating educational

escape rooms and interactive games for higher/further education. International Journal of Serious Games, 4(3), 73-86.

https://doi.org/10.17083/ijsg.v4i3.180 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17083/ijsg.v4i3.180

Cooper, G. (2023). Examining science education in ChatGPT: An exploratory study of generative artificial intelligence. Journal

of Science Education and Technology, 32(3), 444-452. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-023-10039-y DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-023-10039-y

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2008). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. Harper Perennial.

Grande-de-Prado, M., García-Martín, S., Baelo, R., & Abella-García, V. (2021). Edu-escape rooms. Encyclopedia, 1(1), 12-19.

https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1010004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1010004

Grāvelsiņa, E., & Daniela, L. (2021). Designing an online escape room as an educational tool. In L. Daniela (Ed.), Smart

pedagogy of game-based learning (pp. 119-131). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-76986-4_8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-76986-4_8

Guigon, G., Humeau, J., & Vermeulen, M. (2018). A model to design learning escape games: SEGAM. In B. M. McLaren, R.

Reilly, S. Zvacek, & J. Uhomoibhi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Supported

Education (Vol. 1, pp. 191-197). SciTePress. https://doi.org/10.5220/0006665501910197 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5220/0006665501910197

Hadi Mogavi, R., Deng, C., Juho Kim, J., Zhou, P., Kwon, Y. D., Hosny Saleh Metwally, A., Tlili, A., Bassanelli, S., Bucchiarone,

A., Gujar, S., Nacke, L. E., & Hui, P. (2024). ChatGPT in education: A blessing or a curse? A qualitative study exploring

early adopters’ utilization and perceptions. Computers in Human Behavior: Artificial Humans, 2(1), Article 100027.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chbah.2023.100027 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chbah.2023.100027

Hakshurian, Y. (2023). Teachers’ competencies in developing digital educational escape rooms. Educatia 21 Journal, 25,

Article 7. https://doi.org/10.24193/ed21.2023.25.07 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24193/ed21.2023.25.07

Kroski, E. (2020a). Chapter 1. What is a digital breakout game? Library Technology Reports, 56(3), 5-7. https://journals.ala.


Kroski, E. (2020b). Chapter 5. How to create a digital breakout: Developing puzzles. Library Technology Reports, 56(3), 16-22.


Makri, A., Vlachopoulos, D., & Martina, R. A. (2021). Digital escape rooms as innovative pedagogical tools in education: A

systematic literature review. Sustainability, 13(8), Article 4587. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084587 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084587

Moffett, J., & Cassidy, D. (2023). Building a digital educational escape room using an online design-thinking process. Online

Learning, 27(2), 223-244. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v27i2.3279 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v27i2.3279

Nicholson, S. (2015). Peeking behind the locked door: A survey of escape room facilities [White paper]. Wilfrid Laurier University.


Nicholson, S. (2018). Creating engaging escape rooms for the classroom. Childhood Education, 94(1), 44-49. https://doi.org/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00094056.2018.1420363


Pérez Colado, I. J., Pérez Colado, V. M., Calvo Morata, A., Santa Cruz Píriz, R., & Fernández Manjón, B. (2023). Using new

AI-driven techniques to ease serious games authoring. In T. Hammond & H. Hogan (Chairs), Proceedings of the 2023

IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/FIE58773.2023.10343021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/FIE58773.2023.10343021

Repetto, M., Bruschi, B., & Talarico, M. (2023). Key issues and pedagogical implications in the design of digital educational escape

rooms. Journal of E-Learning and Knowledge Society, 19(1), 67-74. https://doi.org/10.20368/1971-8829/1135749

Reuter, J., Ferreira Dias, M., Amorim, M., Figueiredo, C., & Veloso, C. (2020). How to create educational escape rooms?

Strategies for creation and design. In F. J. García-Peñalvo & A. García-Holgado, (Eds.), TEEM’20 Proceeding: Eighth

International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (pp. 694-698). Association for

Computing Machinery. https://doi.org/10.1145/3434780.3436664 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3434780.3436664

Şahin, G. (2023). Designing a digital escape room game: An experience of a digital learning tool in basic education. Journal of

Educational Technology & Online Learning, 6(4), 925-946. http://doi.org/10.31681/jetol.1334912 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31681/jetol.1334912

Veldkamp, A., Merx, S., & van Winden, J. (2021). Educational escape rooms: Challenges in aligning game and education. Well DOI: https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202010.0344.v1

Played, 10(1), 109-135.

Veldkamp, A., Niese, J. R., Heuvelmans, M., Knippels, M.-C. P. J., & van Joolingen, W. R. (2022). You escaped! How did you

learn during gameplay? British Journal of Educational Technology, 53(5), 1430-1458. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.13194 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.13194

Veldkamp, A., van de Grint, L., Knippels, M.-C. P. J., & van Joolingen, W. R. (2020). Escape education: A systematic

review on escape rooms in education. Educational Research Review, 31, Article 100364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.





How to Cite