• Snežana Maksimović Faculty of Business and Law, MB University, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Vesela Vlašković Faculty of Business and Law, MB University, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Aleksandar Damnjanović Faculty of Business and Law, MB University, Belgrade, Serbia




holistic management, change management, business process reengineering (BPR), human resources, learning organization


The paper argues the standpoint that each crisis process requires individual and organizational adaptation, as well as behavioral and rational responses from management directed towards the recovery and adjustment of the organization. The foundational basis is a new approach to the analysis of human resources, knowledge, skills, and interpersonal interactions within the organization aimed at effectively responding to a crisis. Effective crisis management leaders involve key stakeholders to reshape reasoning, shared thinking, and roles individually and collectively. The beginning of the 21st century globally revealed the vulnerability and incapacity of systems to predict and respond to events caused by a pandemic. Decision-makers faced a high degree of uncertainty at the state level, as well as within organizations and their management. They had to deal with the consequences and new behavioral patterns in response to the crisis. The main idea of the paper is that each crisis process requires a series of decisions, activities, and interactions of the entire organization, considering that no organization responds in a way that is completely efficient or entirely inefficient. Even when an organization poorly communicated with the media, ignored stakeholders, or misunderstood the regulators of issues, some elements of crisis management were done well. Also, even if the organization managed to suppress the crisis and overcome challenges, adopting a “learning organization” approach to systematically solve situations of high uncertainty requires further improvement. Today’s global situation emphasizes that change management and preparedness for crisis situations should be high priorities for any organization. During a crisis, decision-making is under the pressure of perceived time constraints and colored by cognitive limitations. Employees, in crisis conditions, are the most significant source of new value, requiring management to align the work of employees with the organization’s goals and thereby minimize potential risks before the triggering event occurs. The authors of this paper wanted to emphasize that an effective response to a potential risky event requires an assessment of system performance in a way that allows managers to pave the way for ideas and capabilities of employees at all organizational levels. The general philosophy of crisis management approach is that there is, to a certain extent, a unique form of planning and coordination to enhance the reactivity, effectiveness, and efficiency of crisis management. In this paper, the authors aim to highlight the importance of flexibility through learning components and the application of a holistic approach in the strategic and operational environment of the organization, considering overall managerial policies, organizational specificities, and crisis management practices.


Download data is not yet available.


Babić, J., & Gligorijević, M. (2010). The quality management system as factor of managing for the sustained success of an organization. SYMORG Proceedings, 3032-3039 Birchall, D., Lyons, L.: Creating Tomorrow’s Organization, Pitman Publishing, London, 1995;

Bontis, N., Janošević, S., & Dženopoljac, V. (2015). Intellectual Capital in Serbia’s Hotel Industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(6), 1365-1384; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-12-2013-0541

Dujanić M., Sundać D., Zrilić, N., Fleksibilnost i adaptibilnost: novi pokazatelji uspješnosti poslovanja, International Business Consulting Center, Zagreb, 1997.

Džubur S. (2003) Uloga ljudskih resursa u savremenom poslovanju, Naše more, Znanstveni časopis za more i pomorstvo, Vol 50, No 1-2, 2003The Role of Human Resources in Modern Business;

Fiedler, F.E. (1987). A Theory of Leadership Effectivenes. New York: McGraw-Hill. Gal AR, Rat CL, Toadere CI. The Role, (2020) Importance and Motivations of ISO 9001:2015 Based QMS Implementation in SMEs, Ovidius University Annals, Series Economic Sciences, Vol. 20, No.1.

Hammer,M., Champy, J. (1993). Reengineering the Corporation. New York: Harper Business. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-6813(05)80064-3

Hause, R.J., Mitchel, T.R. (1974). Path-Goal: Theory of Leadership. Journal of Contemporary Business;

Hofstede Geert (2006) Locales Denken, Globales Handeln, Interkulturelle Zusammenarbeit und globales Management, DTV-Beck, treće izdanje 2006, Munchen

Keković., Z.(2020). Upravljanje krizom COVID-19- Izazov za donosioce odluka. Beograd: Institut za standardizaciju Srbije, Centar za analizu rizika i upravljanje krizama.

Maljugić, M.B., Đorđević, D., Ćoćkalo, D.Ž. (2021). Quality Management System and competitiveness in the modern business environment: Areview of literature and business practice. Tehnika, Vol. 76. iss.5. pp.680-689; DOI: https://doi.org/10.5937/tehnika2105680M

Milovanović V, Janošević S, Paunović, (2021) Quality Management and Business Performance of Serbian company, Ekonomika preduzeća, Beograd DOI: https://doi.org/10.5937/EKOPRE2106345M

Obeng, E., Crainer, S. (1996) Making Re-engineering Happen, What’s Wrong with the Organization Anyway?, Pitman Publishing, London


Senge, P.M. (1994). The Fifth Discipline. New York: Currency Doubleday.

Shein, E. (1985). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Vlašković at.al. (2021). Local self-government units in Serbia: Functioning during the state of emergency caused by COVID-19 virus. ESD 75th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development.

Vojnović, B. (2014). Menadžment. Beograd: Institut za ekonomiku poljoprivrede.

Vujičić Stefanović Dragana, Vesna Novaković, Dragan Milovanović (2023), Strategic Manegement of the risks of attracting foreign direct investments – New financial challenges, Economy and Market Communication Review, Vol. XIII/No. II pp. 429-444, Aperion;

Weckenmann, A., Akkasoglu, G., Werner, T. (2015). Qualitymanagement-history and trends. The TQM Journal, Vol.27, No.3., pp.281-293. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/TQM-11-2013-0125

Wroom, V.,Yetton, P. (1973). Leadership and Decision Making. University of Pitsburg Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt6wrc8r




How to Cite

Maksimović, S., Vlašković, V., & Damnjanović, A. (2024). LEADERSHIP FRAMEWORKS AMIDST CRISIS-INDUCED EVENTS. SCIENCE International Journal, 3(2), 65–73. https://doi.org/10.35120/sciencej0302065m